Today I will start with a story. One of the biggest decision-making failures happened when Kodak made the choice of not to commercialize the digital photography technology that it invented in the ’80s because it feared that it will destroy its film sales. Well, Kodak filed for bankruptcy in 2012.
Why did I start today’s episode with this story? Well, you all guess by now. Today’s topic of Visual Thinking for business is Decision Making
Hi there, this is Tridib and you are watching a Brand new episode of Learn with Tridib – Decision Making.
Before I start today’s episode I would definitely want to ask you all how you are coping up in this lockdown situation. How is your business doing? Hope all members of your family and loved ones are safe and healthy. Do take the utmost care for them.
So, let’s dive in to see what we have in today’s episode. But before that, I would like to request you to like, share and comment on this video. If you are new to this channel kindly Subscribe to the channel and hit the bell icon to get instant notifications.
We all make decisions. Right? Almost every day. Some of them are life-changing choices, while some are not so important ones like which dress to wear for a party or what to order from the menu. Well… If you are aware of the technology world, nowadays bots are also helping us to decide, what the pundits call as Artificial intelligence or AI. Whether it is an opportunity or threat we will discuss in a separate video, not today, but we are all certain that we do not want to make a wrong choice.
The way we visualize and structure information has a clear effect on the outcome of a decision-making process. Visual thinking gives us a great opportunity to improve decision making Processes. When discussing decision making process what comes in our mind first is, who does the decision making? When and where does it occur and what actually happens in a decision making process.
Well.. Decision making in an organization happens around its structure.
Typically the top level managements like the CEO, CFO, COO, takes the organizational decision making calls. However, everyday working process decisions are taken by even managers and team leads.
Decision making mostly happens in formal management team meetings. It can happen weekly, monthly, quarterly or yearly depending on levels of decision making.
Also, adhoc decision making can also happen when daily teething problems need to be decided.
Typically business decision making is supported by fact-based techniques to rationalize decisions and reduce the limitations of human nature.
Rational decision making involves 3 steps: 1)determine your objectives, 2) evaluate the options and 3) select the best option(s)
Care should be taken to reduce the chances of spaghetti thinking. We have to also be careful about the feasibility, acceptability, suitability and profitability of each decisions.
Today I will talk about 3 of my favourite visual thinking techniques that can help any organization looking for decision making Processes.
The first of the techniques is Thinking Hats
The 6 Thinking Hats concept was designed by Edward de Bono.
This asks everyone to look through the same hat together in a particular sequence.
This avoids the natural tendency for mixed or muddled spaghetti thinking. Like one person drops his creative idea – green hat, someone reacting emotionally – red hat, or someone thinking objectively – white hat.
You can also group the hats for cross pollination like optimistic or pessimistic.
After people gets used to these hats, their engagement increases. It also removes ego and reduces confrontations.
OCT or Option Comparison Table is a great technique that allows us to see large amount of information about various options simultaneously.
It also helps us to group and compare and see relationships between the attributes
It allows us to use symbols, color or types of filling to make the comparisons more intuitive. (like smilies, Harvey balls, traffic lights etc.)
I will draw and show you various ways to compare.
A) Harvey balls, B) Like, Dislike C) Ratings D) Calendar days/Months E) right or wrong F) battery/ energy level G) Hot or Cold H) Emoticons or Smilies
This is how a typical Option Comparison Table is drawn
Well this one, many of us are already aware of. A decision tree is a great way of visualizing potential options and their consequences.
It is often used to provide decision makers with guidance or even a protocol
We first have to identify the key decision we want to make and phrase it as question. This is the root node. Each path from the root node describes future sequences. Like did my prospect reach my funnel? If yes did they purchase my product? If yes send them thank you mail immediately or if they saw but didn’t purchase then put them in a separate email list and retarget them. Decision tree also helps us in determining the budget needed in each steps. By analyzing a decision tree we can very well find out which path needs to be tweaked.
So that’s all folks. Hope we have learnt something new today. See you in a brand new episode of Learn with Tridib soon where I will cover How to explore markets and collect customer insights. If you liked the video please please like share and comment on the video. If you are new to this channel please Subscribe to the channel and don’t forget to hit the bell icon so that you can get all notifications instantly.
Thanks again for watching this video. Stay safe and sound. Keep learning and keep watching Learn with Tridib. Good bye.
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First of all, I must admit that I am a movie buff. And though being in the mid-forties, I still enjoy catching up every Avengers series with my kid and also other animated cartoon movies. However, there are a few of them that left a deep mark in my thought process. One of them is undoubtedly this movie “How to Train Your Dragon”. I have at least seen this movie 7-8 times and its sequels.
To be honest, the movie has some very in-depth learning and particularly when you start imbibing Design Thinking in all that you do, the movie starts talking to you. I have watched the movie (as I have earlier mentioned) a number of times and each time it has thrown ample insights to me.
The story revolves around our hero, a young Viking named Hiccup, who solves a huge problem not only for him but for the entire Viking clan, neither by weapons nor by any deep divine power but purely by methodical and correct approach. As the movie suggests, it’s not the goal but the process, the journey, that is important. A meticulous step-by-step guide to innovating something that is capable of changing the world.
Let me analyze and take you through the process –The Design Thinking. Conceived byTim BrownofIdeoin the year 2006, the method initially started as a 3-step process ofUnderstand, Create & Deliverwhich later evolved as a 5-step process ofEmpathy, Define, Ideate, Prototype, and Test.It should be understood that Design Thinking is not a miraculous cure. But it can certainly help. It is not a sure shot solution but a journey to a better solution. It is not the design that is important, but it captures the quality of the designers and can motivate and encourage the ecosystem. It is not a Quick fix and it takes time to implement.And yeah, it might not guarantee successbut if done in the right intent and correct manner, it can be revolutionary.
Allow me to take you through the journey keeping the movie as our central theme. So how was the situation for the Vikings? It was pretty bad. They had a grave problem, fire breathing dragons raiding their homes and destroying them, stealing their sheep. Clueless about what could be a better solution to solve this problem, they embraced strategy based on physical violence. The strategy was to kill the dragons whenever they were seen. The second generations were also brainwashed and forced to see the world through that key hole. This model is entrusted by the Viking chief, Stoic, who had enormous strength and huge build. His motto was very clear “Kill on Sight, Kill on Sight, Kill on Sight”.
However, his son Hiccup neither had the build nor had the mental frame. He could at best become a mechanical engineer. He dreamt to become a “maker”. But he was the minority and always mocked at by peers. By a sheer chance he was able to capture the mysterious and most terrifying “Night Fury” dragon with his ballista (a catapult used in ancient warfare for hurling large stones).But he chose to keep it in secrecy.
He knew if he kills it, he will no longer be a minority, he will be a champion. But he chose to take a different path. He chose to free the dragon. The dragon also chose to reciprocate.
Breaking the dominant model:
Hiccup took pity and chose to free the dragon.
Next few days he deliberated that there can be another way other than confrontation. He tried to validate or confirm if it was only an instinct. InDesign Thinking, it is important to make an equilibrium between what youknowand what yousee. While it is important to read the subject, it is equally important to go to the field to find new learnings.
Finding a gap between what society believes and what is the reality is a great start and is called insight. Hiccup quickly realized that what he had experienced in the form of an unspoken peace with a dragon, is the proof that the dominant process had major flaws.
By consulting some existing literatures, he realized that the Vikings do not know much about the dragons as they were so obsessed by their violentbelief. All they knew is the dragon’s fighting abilities, they knew nothing about their way of life, how they felt.
Thus, started Hiccup’s journey of the first step of Design Thinking, i.e. Empathy.
Empathy corresponds to understanding. As he started visiting the dragon repeatedly, he started shadowing him, following his mannerism, characteristics, what he eats, how he behaves, his anatomy, movement, and making sketches time to time. He had been lucky as “Night Fury” got stuck on the edge of a lake surrounded by cliffs. This allowed him to conduct his research in ideal conditions. The luck factor should not be neglected in a design thinking approach as it sometimes influences the process.
Hiccup’s approach was user-centric, and not entirely technique. He could have perfected the ballista that allowed him to catch more dragons, but he started studying the dragon and made the effort to understand the needs of the dragon. It was no longer seen as a target to conquer but as a thinking being with needs, constraints, and desires.
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Hiccup had that essential reflex in Design Thinking. He always used to carry his drawing pad to take notes, whether to establish a map or to make a sketch of a dragon. This approach allowed him to define the problem of the dragon and understand why he couldn’t escape. He lost his ability to fly because his rear wing got torn. This conclusion came from his anatomical observations of how dragons fly and his knowledge of the dragon’s recent past. He gathered everything he knew to define a problem statement.
In his mind he might have defined the problem statement like:“How may I help the dragon to fly again.”
Hiccup didn’t have the leisure to take advantage of collective ideas as he was secretively working alone and hence the Ideate stage in the film was rushed a bit. They started showing him gone back to his drawing pad and creating a leather prosthetic wing. In this case, this might be the obvious answer, but in most cases, this step can be longer and required realbrainstorming sessions.Design Thinking is a methodology that adapts to both solo and group work. Hiccup didn’t get the luxury of allowing multiple ideas Yes…and Yes…and Yes…and Yes…and Yes.
Once he was satisfied with his research processes, with sketches, drawings, and models, he started quick prototyping. Please take a note, Quick Prototyping helps one to fail fast and address issues from the beginning itself. Hiccup as I told earlier was a maker, a craftsman capable of working with iron, leather etc. to create the object he needed. A tail fin made with leather.
And thus, he entered the final phase of Design Thinking – Test
This phase is a very important element of Design Thinking, and one must avoid losing touch with reality at all costs. Like the stage of empathy, the Test phase gives certainties to reality in order to make it evolve. To make it relevant.
The test phase addresses several issues. Whether the concept or the product is viable, whether it is feasible as well as if the final product would be desirable. Most often, this validation comes from the end-user who understands how it works, finds interest, and develops a use. This discovery by the user must be observed precisely since they will give the right direction to the final product.
For Hiccup, the proof of the success of his prototype was obtained by the flight quality.
A side note:Test phase can involve substantial risks because we have to be aware that it not only proves that a product or idea works but also points out failures. It is necessary to be able to distinguish the failures that questions the concept and those that are related to the execution. Hence, it is important to consider them as lessons and not as defeats. In Design Thinking this is an important principle,“Fail fast, fail often“. However, it is important not to be get intimidated by failure, which is only a step in the process and not an end in itself.
Iterate, Repeat or the Loop:
The principle of iterations suggests that it is necessary to constantly go back and forth between the prototyping and testing phase. Unfolding and folding the tail fin by hand was a minimum requirement but couldn’t be considered viable. That’s why Hiccup iterated this by trial and error to develop his prototype. He used a rope that he tried operating by hand, then with the foot and finally with a pedal. It is this loop between the prototype and test stage that allowed it to become an optimized product.
And finally, one day, it worked, and all tests were positive. Hiccup planned able to move to an implementation phase. But having said that he must convince the society, the Viking clan to adopt its product and integrate it into practices.
To implement a product or service, we must be able to quickly demonstrate the capabilities of its innovation, sometimes to people who do not want to listen to you. Just in case of Astrid, who succeeded very well in the dominant model. She was a real warrior and when she discovered the chemistry between Hiccup and Toothless, she supported.
If a picture is worth a thousand words, a presentation is worth a thousand pictures. This is principle, “Do not tell, show” allows you to remove suspicions and blockages. Having a physical prototype that you can test in front of masses really shows your capability. If you have a product that can cause a wow effect, do not hesitate to play it. This helps you to find valuable allies to spread your ideas.
Finally, do not forget to have an engaging speech, to have values, a vision of the world. It’s the “think different” of Apple. Hiccup’s product had the wow effect for sure, but what he really believed and wanted to share was that the answer to the dragon problem isnot the confrontation,it’s the cooperationand he was ready to challenge his entire clan for this. His innovation was revolutionary for sure. It changed the entire perception. If there is only love and cooperation there is no confrontation. Also, if you can ride and control dragons what is the point of killing them.
Once he had proved that his product is valuable, he was needed to pass it on, to replicate it with others. It was also necessary to amalgamate his ideas with thestory or a speech, to make it compatible for all. This reassured new adopters and allowed them to change.
Hiccup referred to a mantra of the dominant model to describe his activity: “We are Viking, it is the professional risks”. It is an expression that reminded me that the Vikings were not afraid of anything. Using this sentence, he indirectly pushed all Vikings to accept the change. If before, they were crazy enough to fight dragons, today they were crazy enough to ride them.
His emerging model of controlling dragons and living with co-operation became a major find and with the help of the dragons, he constructed his village. We could see that society slowly adapted to innovation. And that became the success of the entire process ofDesign Thinking.
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Design Thinking is a guide, it is not absolute and should not be followed blindly. However, it offers a set of recognized and articulated practices that will allow you to progress without losing sight of reality.
The core idea of this article is influenced by a similar article by Maxim Nialiv of Stormz.
Change by Design by Tim Brown, Ideo
Design Thinking for Startups by Jimmy Jain
I am thankful to the entire cast and crew of “How to Train your Dragon”. Knowingly/ Unknowingly they presented us with a movie that had deep learning.
This article needs to be consumed only for knowledge purpose. My intention is not to earn anything out of it. I just presented a wonderful analogy brought to us by Maxim Nialiv. I do not claim the core idea is mine. However, my analogies and understanding has been entirely mine.
There are number of movies that directly or indirectly brings in Design Thinking processes as part of their story partly or in totality. My humble request, if you find such stories, do share with us.
As children, we used to draw non-stop. Right on our walls, on our breakfast tables, on the paper napkins. Even, we used to scribble naughty drawings about our teachers or friends on the blackboards to make them embarrass. Haven’t we all done that? Well, at least some must admit. While mugging up important notes we used to organize each and every point as mind-maps and imagery — why? Because these used to give us the pointers if we forget the mug-up in the exam hall.
But, what happened when we grew up? We all wanted to be Picasso, Leonardo-Da-Vinci or a Michelangelo with our drawings, or we were forced to be one. And, when we found we were no match to the great masters, we all stopped drawing. We even stopped scribbling on papers. We started telling ourselves “Drawing is not for grownups.” What happened in that? We not only forgot to draw simple things, but we also forgot to imagine. We forgot to convey our BIG ideas in the board room or in front of a business investor.
While conducting workshops at various colleges, education institutes and organisations I have come to hear several times that “I Can’t Draw.” I have also noticed that various wonderful ideas had hit the dust or didn’t get funding purely because the investors or the board members couldn’t visualise the idea in totality. It’s sad isn’t it?
But the Good NEWS is that “We all can draw” in oursubconscious mind. It is not about thequalityof the drawing that we are talking over here. It is connecting with each other through your drawings. Ever wondered how “Cave men” used to communicate without been able to speak? That’s the power of an image. After all, “Imagination” has the wordimagein it.
How many of you willDare to Drawwith me?
Let’s start with small things. Since we all love texts, we will start with first three alphabets of English Language — A, B, & C. And in the process will also use some others. But I will only restrict myself to alphabets. Are you game?
Simple isn’t it?
Let’s loosen up a bit more. Ok? Let’s draw some faces. Seems tough? Not really. Just follow my steps.
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Dan Roam, the Author of the book “Draw to Win” and “The Back of the Napkin” has given a very simple solution to all those people who say, “I cannot draw.” These are the 7 Basic Building Block Shapes. Using these 7 shapes we can practically draw anything we want to express.
Let me show you how you can draw simple figures using these few shapes. Well let’s take a challenge that every picture we’re going to create in this task will be based on the combination of these simple shapes.
So, how do you feel? Pretty awesome isn’t it?
Now, since we all have become semi Picasso and Van Gogh let’s jump into something which will make you more confident. Let’s draw some characters.
a) A student b) A Doctor c) A Patient d) A Criminal e) A school going kid and f) An elderly woman.
Please be with me as I take you through a journey with shapes that will help you create Icons and Metaphors.
A) Idea/ Bulb B) Summit C) Compass D) Direction E) Higher Up the ladder F) Puzzle pieces G) Open Book H) Coffee Break I) Lock and Key J) Wire, Plug and Socket K) a Magnet L) POV M) Network M) Brainstorming.
Feeling it is too much in one day? Well, have you thought that you, yourselves have drawn so many things without even thinking once that “You cannot Draw”? Isn’t that stupendous? Give yourself a pat on your own back.
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Just before ending this Article, I would like you to keep this thought in your mind. Images do not only make ideas stand out they also help us memorise points much faster and in effective way.
Author: Tridib Ghosh
— Empowering people & Organisations through Visual Collaborations